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Abrasive (Sand) Blasting

Abrasive (sand) blasting is the process of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth or polish a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface, or remove surface impurities. It consists of pressurized fluid, typically compressed air, that is used to propel a high-velocity stream of blasting material,…

Accordion Pleat

An accordion pleat is a drapery header type in which the fabric is formed into the shape of a sharp ‘Z’. The shape can be made by sewing the top of the fabric together and pressing, or it can be done with the use of hardware and pressing. An accordion…

Acetate

Explore Materials and Sample Acetate is a manufactured cellulose fiber made from wood pulp through a dry spinning process. It can be manufactured as a staple fiber and filament yarn. Acetate staple fiber is commonly used as cigarette filters, while acetate filament yarn is often weaved into satin fabric, which…

Acrylic

Explore Materials and Sample Acrylic fiber is a synthetic fiber made from polyacrylonitrile that was first developed by Dupont in the 1940s and trademarked under the name Orlon. Acrylic fiber is lightweight, durable, and can be extruded in both staple and filament form through wet and dry spinning process. Acrylic…

Aldehyde Tanning

Aldehyde tanning is a process that uses a combination of glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine that reacts with the hide protein to prevent putrefaction. It is typically used when chrome-free leather is specified. The hide is a cream or white color in its raw state and is often referred to as “wet-white”…

Aluminum

Explore Materials and Sample Aluminum is a silvery-white metal that is often referred to as the “miracle metal,” as it is light and non-ferrous, which is why it will not rust or corrode. It also has a variety of end applications, including decorative ceiling tiles, countertops, decorative metal sheets, partitions,…

Aniline Dyed

Explore Materials and Sample A transparent liquid that is absorbed by leather, aniline dye is used in a tanning method in which the leather does not receive any coating of pigmented finish. This results in a porous, smooth surface that clearly displays the texture of the animal hide, giving it…

Ashlar

Ashlar is a type of carpet and modular flooring layout in which tiles are installed in the same direction but are vertically staggered by half of a tile’s length between columns.…

Balance

Balance is a wood panel matching method where the veneer width is uniform, creating a more consistent and symmetrical appearance. This method can be used on different wood matches, such as random or book, as long as the veneer widths are equal throughout. This method produces veneer yield and is…

Balanced Laminate Construction

Balanced laminate construction refers to the balancing—or “counter-balancing—of a laminate assembly that equalizes the forces acting on both faces of the substrate to prevent warping, buckling, or delamination. Laminate—which is made of layers of Kraft paper and resin—is not sturdy enough to support itself and so must be adhered or…

Bamboo

Explore Materials and Sample Bamboo refers to a manufactured cellulose fiber that is made from bamboo pulp with a solvent spun process. As part of rayon fiber family, bamboo fiber can be produced in filament or staple form. It is not inherently antibacterial. Bamboo is a renewable resource and is…

Basalt

Explore Materials and Sample Basalt is a dark, fine-grained igneous rock that is composed of minerals such as plagioclase and pyroxene. It is durable, does not react to acids, absorbs sound, and has consistent coloring. This stone has a variety of end uses including building veneers, floor and wall tiles,…

Basketweave

Basketweave refers to a type of plain weave that creates a checkerboard-like weave pattern. Multiple warp threads interlace with an equal number of weft threads, going over and under, and then in reverse. Compared to flat plain weaves, basketweaves are visually more impactful, particularly when different colors in warp and…

Beaded

Explore Materials and Sample The term beaded refers to the process of stringing beads on a thread or wire, or of sewing them to a cloth. Beads can be made of various materials and are available in different sizes and shapes. Beadwork techniques can be combined with weaving, embroidery, crochet,…

Bear Scratches

Bear scratches are abnormalities formed from indented growth rings on the tangential face of wood, which look like a scratch from a bear’s claw—hence the name. They are commonly found in Sitka spruce.…

Beck Dyed

Explore Materials and Sample Beck Dyed is a method used to dye large batches of greige goods—usually in rope form—in large becks, vats, or steel tanks. Greige goods are moved in a circular motion in and out of an aqueous dyebath to help provide color uniformity. Although typically used for…

Bee’s Wing

A bee’s wing is a type of wood figuring that typically appears in Indian satinwood, narra, mahogany, and eucalyptus. The small-scale, tight form resembles the wing of a bee, hence the name.…

Belting Leather

Belting leather is a type of full-grain leather that was originally used for pulley belts in machinery during the Industrial Revolution. The heavyweight material—featuring a thick, firm feel with a smooth finish—can be either vegetable or chrome tanned.…

Bevel Edge

A bevel edge is a straight planer cut added to the edges of a surface. According to the National Wood Flooring Association (NWFA), this cut should be at or around a 45-degree angle and greater than a .045-inches in depth. It can be created on different flooring and surface materials…

Bird’s Eye

Explore Materials and Sample A bird’s eye is a type of wood figuring with a distinct swirling pattern in the grain that leads to the formation of small circular figures—or eyes—on the tangential face. Bird’s eyes are most often found in hard maple, as the logs are typically rotary cut…

Blackout Drapery

Explore Materials and Sample Blackout drapery refers to a type of window treatment that is made from an opaque fabric used to eliminate light in a room. These treatments can come in the form of curtains, shades, or blinds, and are designed to be tightly fitted to a window casing—ensuring…

Blister

Blister is a wood figure that appears short and straight with raised sections. A blister looks similar to a quilt and fiddleback figure, except that it does not appear as oval as quilt or as long as fiddleback. This figuring is a direct result from cutting across uneven growth rings…

Bolt

A bolt is a unit of measurement that counts the number of yards or meters on a single textile roll or bolt. It is an important consideration for furniture manufacturers and fabricators in determining the total material needed for a project. The bolt size most often correlates to the weight…

Bonded Leather

Bonded leather—also called reconstituted leather or blended leather—is produced from waste that results during leather production. The leather scraps and leather fibers are made into a pulp and stuck to a fiber or paper backing. It is then coated with a polyurethane bonding agent and embossed to give the appearance…

Book Match

Book match is considered the most commonly used wood match. Every other consecutive veneer leaf is flipped on the vertical and butted, creating a mirrored effect similar to an opened book. It creates a symmetrical pattern that accentuates the grain and wood figuring of the log. Book match can be…

Border Tile

Explore Materials and Sample Border tile refers to the tiles that surround the field tile—a decorative edging that results in a more finished design, which can highlight or frame particular areas within a space. Border tile designs can be used on both floors and walls, and come in a variety…

Bouclé

Bouclé is a type of novelty yarn with various sized loops that add texture and a curly, knotted finish to the end product. Named for the the French meaning of ‘to curl,’ Bouclé is composed of two or more yarns, with one of the yarns twisted tight to stabilize for…

Braided

Explore Materials and Sample Braiding is a technique that interlaces a minimum of three threads or strips diagonally across to form a narrow band that can be flat or tubular. Braids are most frequently used for trimmings and can also be sewn together to form a larger surface, such as…

Brass

Explore Materials and Sample Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc that can be rosy gold, golden yellow, or silver in color. It is a metal that is durable, malleable, and acoustical. Brass exhibits low friction against other metals, and it is a great conductor of heat. It is…

Brick Ashlar

Brick ashlar refers to a type of carpet and modular flooring layout in which tiles are placed in the same direction but horizontally staggered by half of the width of a tile on the next row, creating a pattern that evokes the look of brick installations.…

Broadloom

Explore Materials and Sample Broadloom refers to carpets available in standard wide widths greater than six feet. Broadloom carpet is sold as a roll and is meant for wall-to-wall installation but can be cut down and edge finished by some manufacturers to create area rugs. Photography Courtesy of Mohawk Group…

Broken Fiddleback

Broken fiddleback is a type of wood figuring that is similar to a fiddleback wood figure except it does not cross the whole leaf of the board, giving it a broken effect.…

Broken Stripe

Broken stripe refers to a wood figure that looks like stripes running down the veneer, but in a broken or faded pattern. The stripe lines are not consistently visible throughout, allowing for the broken line appearance. It can sometimes appear similar to a ribbon stripe or a broken ribbon.…

Bronze

Bronze is a yellowish-brown metallic alloy that is primarily made of copper and a small percentage of tin and other metals. It is a metal that is ductile, durable, and has low friction with other metals. It can be easily melted down and molded into a variety of end uses…

Bullnose

Bullnose is a term most commonly used to describe ceramic tile that is distinguished by rounded edges primarily appears as decorative trim. The format is often used to frame the perimeter of a tiled wall or create a transition between the tile and the wall, so that unfinished tile sides…

Bullnose Edge

Bullnose is an edge type is rounded and finished to match the main surface. A full bullnose edge is curved on the top and bottom and will look like a “U” turned on its side. Bullnose edges can come in other forms, such as a half bullnose, which is rounded…

Burl

A burl is a tree growth in which the grain has grown in a deformed, goiter-like manner. It can be found on all parts of the tree, including the trunk, base, or a branch filled with knots. Caused when a tree has undergone a form stress, such as injury, insect…

Cartridge Pleat

A cartridge pleat is a drapery header type that uses rolls which create a template for loose waves to flow throughout the rest of the curtain. From an aerial view, the fabric simply looks like a zig zag with rounded edges. A cartridge pleat creates a layered and tailored aesthetic.…

Carved Rug

Explore Materials and Sample Carved rug refers to carpets and rugs whose pile has been cut to varying levels. Using special tools, the carpets and rugs are carved—with grooves or “valleys” that are cut into the pile—to create patterns with three-dimensional effects. This technique is typically used for high-end rugs.…

Cement

Explore Materials and Sample Cement is a binding substance typically used in construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bond them together. The material is characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending on the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water. Non-hydraulic cement needs dry…

Center

Center is a wood panel matching method. Similar to balance, center match has uniform veneer widths, creating a more consistent and symmetrical appearance. Different from the balance method, center matching requires that the wood grain pattern is centered on the panel, creating a different overall pattern. This method produces veneer…

Ceramic

Explore Materials and Sample Ceramic is a solid material that is composed of a mixture of inorganic materials combined with a bonding agent. The mixture of materials used to create ceramics can vary depending on the final result, but most include varieties of clay mixed with water. The process starts…

Chrome Tanning

Explore Materials and Sample Chrome tanning is a process in which hides are treated with chromium (III) salts. It is considered to be the most common form of tanning due to its fast process. In this method, a hide’s pH level needs to be increased before the tanning process begins…

Cluster

Cluster refers to a wood figure that is similar to a burl wood figure but is always grouped together in smaller areas, or clusters. Surrounding the clusters are darker figurings that have a muscle-like appearance.…

Coated Fabrics

Explore Materials and Sample Coated fabrics are created by bonding a coated layer to a textile substrate. The coated layer comes in either a liquid or film form and it can be applied to woven, knit, or non-woven substrates. Depending on the desired fabric properties such as durability, impermeability, resistance,…

COL

COL refers to “customer’s own leather,” which is a leather style selected by the specifier that is not part of the standard offering of a furniture manufacturer. If a COL is chosen, the specifier either has to purchase the leather from the leather provider and ship it to the manufacturer…

COM

COM refers to “customer own material,” which is a textile style selected by the specifier that is not part of the standard offering of a furniture manufacturer. If a COM is chosen, the specifier either has to purchase the textile from the textile provider and ship it to the manufacturer for application, or the…

Common Bond

A common bond, also known as an American bond, is one of several techniques of bonding bricks in building and construction. Vertical rows, or courses, consist of headers—bricks that are laid flat with width exposed—that are inserted every five or six rows, with the headers centered on stretcher—bricks laid flat…

Compact Laminate

Compact laminate refers to a type of high-pressure laminate (HPL) that exceeds 2mm in thickness. Compact laminates are more resistant to impact, abrasion, moisture, scratch, chemicals, and heat than thinner HPLs. They are often used as partitions, wall cladding, commercial countertops, casework, and furniture in heavily trafficked public areas, especially…

Concrete

Explore Materials and Sample Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a cement past that hardens, or cures, over time. It is the most used man-made material on earth. Concrete’s usage worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics, and…

Continuous Dyed

Continuous dyed is a method used to dye large quantities of yarn, textiles, or carpet on a continuous production line. Unlike piece dyeing in batches, continuous dyeing involves moving the goods through the dye application, dye fixation, washing, and sometimes finishing stages without interruption.…

Copper

Explore Materials and Sample Copper is a shiny, reddish metal that is ductile, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity. This metal also has great anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. Copper is durable, however when it oxidizes—which occurs with exposure to the elements—the metal will patina and begin to…

Corduroy

Explore Materials and Sample Corduroy is a ridged fabric made from cut pile yarn that has been woven into wales—also referred to as cords—which are the vertical ribs that run the length of the fabric and give corduroy its unique texture. It is a durable fabric that is often used…

Cork

Explore Materials and Sample Cork is a natural material sourced from the phellem layer of the cork oak, or Quercus Suber tree. Cork is considered a sustainable material since it comes from a renewable resource and its production involves minimal waste or harm to the tree. It has a closed-cell…

Corrected Grain Leather

Explore Materials and Sample Corrected grain is a leather hide whose surface has been altered or corrected. During the production process, the hide is frequently sanded or buffed on the grain side to remove imperfections and obtain a more uniform surface and the leather is often coated with a semi-aniline…

Corrugated

Corrugation is the process by which structural ridges can be introduced to a material. The advantages of corrugated material over sheet material include dramatically increased tensile and load-bearing strength. Different edge profiles can be applied to achieve different aesthetic and performance attributes. Many different types of materials can be corrugated including…

Cotton

Explore Materials and Sample Cotton is a plant that produces a soft natural cellulose staple fiber. It has been grown for over 6,000 years for uses that include food, farming, textile fibers, and fuel. As the top producers of cotton, India, China, and the United States generate approximately 60 percent of…

Crewel Embroidery

Explore Materials and Sample Crewel embroidery, or crewelwork, is a type of free surface embroidery that uses a crewel or two-ply wool yarn. This heftier yarn gives embroidery patterns a signature thickness and texture. Because crewel is defined by the type of material used, it may use any embroidery stitch.…

Cross Cut

Cross cut is a stone slab cut perpendicular to the natural bedding. It is characterized by its mineral veins and layers that create a swirly or cloudy look at a cross section. This type of cut shows a mixture of dark and light colors on the same slab face.…

Cross Dyed

Explore Materials and Sample Cross dyed is a method used to produce multicolor effects in yarns, textiles, or carpets made from more than one kind of fiber. The desired material can be dipped into a single dyebath and obtain varying color effects based on each fiber’s dye affinities. This method…

Crotch

Crotch refers to a wood figure that appears when a cut is made from the joint connecting the tree’s trunk and its branch. It can have a wide range of appearances and usually the veneer leaves are smaller. The juncture connecting the trunk and branch creates an extreme form of…

Crown Moulding

Crown moulding refers to decorative cornice installed at the intersection of the ceiling and wall, which is constructed from wood, plaster, or other materials. This decorative moulding can give a ceiling the feeling of height. Crown moulding dates back to Egyptian times, and later in classical Greek and Roman architecture,…

Cubicle Header

A cubicle header is a simple gathering of drapery fabric that is hung in a way that it is easy to remove from the track or rod in order for regular cleaning. A common cubicle header is seen in privacy curtains that are used in medical settings. With this type…

Curly

Curly wood figuring refers to a primarily horizontal pattern that runs perpendicular to the wood grain. This creates a three-dimensional effect that gives the wood a wavy surface when light reflects off of it, as if there are curls or ripples in the grain. It is commonly found in maple…

Cut and Loop Pile

Explore Materials and Sample Cut & loop pile is a type of carpet that is constructed of a combination of cut ends and looped yarns. The mix of cut and uncut loops—in either uniform or varying heights—allows carpets to be created with a variety of surface designs, textures, and patterns,…

Cut Pile

Explore Materials and Sample Cut pile is a type of carpet constructed of loop yarns that have been cut in half or sheared. Common cut pile styles include Saxony, with well-defined piles that stand straight up; frieze, featuring fibers that are highly twisted to enable the material to curl in…

Debossed

Debossed refers to a fabrication process used for applying a recessed dimensional design onto a material. The process requires a die to be created with the desired pattern, which is then applied with pressure—and in some cases heat—to create the sunken effect. This differs from embossing, which creates a raised effect on…

Dentil Moulding

Dentil moulding refers to a decorative moulding that consists of a simple repetition of closely spaced, rectangular blocks. Dentil is derived from the Latin word dens, meaning teeth. This moulding is generally used below the cornice of the roof line, or along a fireplace mantel. It is a popular ornamentation…

Digital Dye Injection

Explore Materials and Sample Digital dye injection is a method where dye is injected onto the face of carpet with a series of small jets. The dye penetrates directly into the fiber and is chemically bonded to it. This process is used to create accurate, high-definition patterns and color gradations…

Digital Print

Explore Materials and Sample Digital print refers to a process of directly printing onto a substrate from a digital resource. The process deposits ink droplets of various colors in a continuous jet or pulse that combine to create the desired colors for a given design. With advancements in ink compositions…

Dimple

Dimple figuring in wood resembles little pockets or shallow holes on the tree bark. When cut, the wood veneer will have ring like shapes that resemble the dimples on the tree bark.…

Distressed

Explore Materials and Sample Distressed refers to a material that has simulated marks of age and wear or has been purposely blemished so as to give the appearance of long, steady use. It can be applied to wood, metal, textile, glass, and stone through many methods such as hammering, denting,…

Dog-Tooth Moulding

Dog-tooth moulding is an ornamental architectural element. The dog-tooth pattern consists of triangles, pyramids, or a petal-like designs connecting at the ends to form a diamond or square, that more often look like a sharp canine tooth. The dog-tooth moulding pattern stems from the Early Normal period (c.1066-1485 AD) and…

Dye Lot

A dye lot is a record attributed to all yarn or yardage in a specific dye bath. Yarns and pieces from the same dye lot are understood to have the same coloration and considered to be a match when used throughout a space. Even with consistent dye formulas between dye…

Eased Edge

Also referred to as a softened square, eased edge describes the technique of bordering countertops and other surfaces with rounded square edges, as opposed to sharp square cuts that can reveal unfinished layers of material. Stone, engineered stone, solid surfacing, and high-pressure laminate commonly employ eased edges to address both…

Egg and Dart Moulding

Egg and dart moulding refers to a type of decorative moulding, which consists of the simple repetition of an egg-shaped object—also called the echinus—interspersed with a V-shaped element such as an arrow, anchor, or dart that surrounds the echinus. This moulding is traditionally found at the top of ionic capitals,…

Embossed

Explore Materials and Sample Embossed refers to a fabrication process of applying a raised dimensional design to a material. The process requires both male and female dies to create an offset surface, as opposed to debossing, which involves pressing into the material and only requires one die. Embossing uses both…

Embroidered

Explore Materials and Sample Embroidered refers to a textile that has been embellished on its surface with fibers, yarns, beads, or other materials. This style can be created by both hand and machine. Hand embroidery is typically constructed through stitch or needle work in the form of a decorative pattern…

Encaustic Cement Tile

Explore Materials and Sample Based on an ancient painting technique, in which hot wax is combined with colored pigments and then applied to a surface, encaustic cement tiles consist of three layers of sand, cement, and marble dust, with a top layer measuring between ⅛-inch and ¼-inch in depth that…

Encaustic Ceramic Tile

Explore Materials and Sample Based on an ancient painting technique, in which hot wax is combined with colored pigments and then applied to a surface, encaustic ceramic tiles are produced by combining clay and multiple powdered colors to create a pattern. The compound is then fired to seal the pattern…

End Match

End match refers to a four-panel wood match sequence. The pattern starts with two wood veneers that are book matched, on the vertical, and then joined by two additional book matched veneers that are flipped, on the horizontal, creating an almost mirrored effect between the four panels. The grains are…

End-Grain Wood

Explore Materials and Sample End grain refers to the grain of wood that is exposed when timber is cut across the growth rings at a 90-degree angle, as opposed to a plank of wood that has been cut along the length of the trunk. End grain exposes the character of…

Engineered Hardwood Flooring

Explore Materials and Sample Engineered hardwood flooring is constructed from real wood slats that are adhered together in layers at opposing directions to form a plank. The cross-grain configuration minimizes expansion and shrinking, allowing for a tighter fit while installing and less movement after installation is complete. The two main…

English Bond

English bond is one of several techniques used for bonding bricks in building and construction. Vertical rows, or courses, alternate between stretchers—bricks laid flat with the narrow side exposed—and headers—bricks laid flat with the width exposed—that are configured with the headers centered above the stretchers, and the joints of the…

Engraved

Explore Materials and Sample Engraving refers to a fabrication process that is used to carve a pattern or design into the surface of a hard material. It is typically used to create impressions on metal, stone, plastic, or glass and can be done by hand or with lasers depending on the…

Enhanced Grain Leather

Explore Materials and Sample Enhanced is a type of full grain leather that has a slight plating over its surface to help even the hide. This is done to improve the grain’s overall appearance. Photography Courtesy of Foglizzo Leather…

Epingle

Explore Materials and Sample An epingle is a woven pile textile with a very durable surface. Both loop and cut pile are seen in this fabric, and this is what gives the end product its texture. Epingles are traditionally woven on special looms that insert a horizontal rod into the…

Etched

Explore Materials and Sample Etched refers to a fabrication process that is used to carve a design or pattern onto the surface of a hard material. The process can be accomplished with acid, sand, or laser techniques and can be applied to many materials, including glass, metal, leather, stone, tile,…

Expanded Metal

Explore Materials and Sample Standard expanded metal is a plate or sheet of metal that has been cut and stretched to form a mesh-like material. The most common expanded profile is a diamond shape because of its durability and ease of production but other profiles can be also achieved through…

Felt

Explore Materials and Sample Traditional felt is a non-woven fabric that is produced by matting, condensing, and pressing loose fibers in order to form the structure of the fabric. With a loose construction that is subject to tearing, felt products that are used industrially are typically made by heating, shrinking,…

Fiberglass

Explore Materials and Sample Fiberglass is a filament fiber produced with glass. The glass is melted and extruded through fine holes. Fiberglass is lightweight and is often combined with other resins or plastics to increase its strength. It is also resistant to chemicals, light, and heat. Fiberglass is often used…

Fiddleback

Explore Materials and Sample Fiddleback wood figuring is a specific variation of a curly wood figure, where the curls are very tight and uniform. Its close grains and lines appear to swerve or ripple in varying patterns. It is commonly found in maple, sycamore, and walnut trees. Photography Courtesy of…

Field Tile

Explore Materials and Sample Field tile refers to the primary area of tile that is covering a surface. It is the most prominent tile within the space.…

Figured

Figured refers to the surface effect and markings found on timber that give it a unique appearance. It can vary depending on many factors, including the wood’s grain, color, and the way it was cut. Types of figured effects include curly, fiddleback, and bird’s eye. Photography Courtesy of Wolf-Gordon…

Flagstone

Flagstone is a generic sedimentary rock that is hardened through heat and pressure and then crushed for paving as crushed stones or cut into flat layers of shapes as dimension stones. Various types of flagstones include basalt, bluestone, limestone, quartzite, sandstone, slate, and travertine. The rock’s characteristics and color depend…

Flake

Flake wood figuring appears when a wood species has heavy medullary ray growth. Medullary rays are a type of cellular structure found in some species of wood, which grows in a radial pattern perpendicular to the wood’s growth rings. Flake figuring will appear if you cut the wood parallel, or…

Flame

Flame refers to a wood figuring that is caused by a distortion in the wood fiber, which creates a wavy or flame-like lines. It is similar to fiddleback and curly wood figuring, but with more straight lines instead of a curled pattern. Flame figuring is commonly found in the maple…

Flannel

Explore Materials and Sample Flannel is a soft and warm woven fabric that has a napped, or fuzzy, finish on both sides. Typically made of cotton, it may be brushed or unbrushed, depending on its desired softness and end use. Flannel is often woven with patterns, such as plaid or…

Flashed

Flashed is a method of firing brick that creates a reduced atmosphere in the kiln to change the brick’s color to a dark or black hue. It can also be referred to as reduction firing. The process typically changes the color of the brick’s surface, while the body retains its…

Flat Pleat

A flat pleat is the most common drapery header as it requires no actual pleating. It allows the textile to naturally hang with a flowy and relaxed aesthetic. Curtains with flat pleats can be hung using hardware such as rod and rings, an exposed track, a hidden track with cornice,…