Terms

Results for "metal"

Abrasive (Sand) Blasting

Abrasive (sand) blasting is the process of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth or polish a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface, or remove surface impurities. It consists of pressurized fluid, typically compressed air, that is used to propel a high-velocity stream of blasting material,…

Aluminum

Explore Materials and Sample Aluminum is a silvery-white metal that is often referred to as the “miracle metal,” as it is light and non-ferrous, which is why it will not rust or corrode. It also has a variety of end applications, including decorative ceiling tiles, countertops, decorative metal sheets, partitions,…

American National Safety Institute (ANSI)

The American National Safety Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit membership organization that manages and regulates the development of voluntary safety standards for products and systems in the United States. Founded in 1918, ANSI and its members have laid the groundwork for national standardization and assessment frameworks in industries encompassing…

ASTM E84 Flammability

Explore Materials and Sample ASTM E84 Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials The ASTM E84 test is a standard of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) that measures the burning properties, or fire resistance, of building materials that may be exposed to flames using the Steiner tunnel chamber…

Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the breakdown or decomposition of materials by microorganisms. It refers to the processes that transform materials into less complex compounds that can be used and reused by living systems. Biodegradation is used for waste management and environmental remediation, also known as bioremediation. It is an important process that…

Bleach Cleanable

Explore Materials and Sample Bleach cleanable is a common cleaning instruction for textiles. It usually comes with detailed dilution instructions as well as the applicable bleach type. There are two different types of bleach: chlorine bleach and oxygen bleach or non-chlorine bleach. Chlorine bleach can disinfect, oxidize, and deodorize textiles,…

Botanical

Explore Materials and Sample Botanical is a motif depicting precise illustrations of plants that occasionally includes representations of flowers in bloom, leaves, or stems. As a favored subject in formal framed art, the imagery has also become a widespread design in printed textiles. Photography Courtesy of James Dunlop Textiles…

Brass

Explore Materials and Sample Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc that can be rosy gold, golden yellow, or silver in color. It is a metal that is durable, malleable, and acoustical. Brass exhibits low friction against other metals, and it is a great conductor of heat. It is…

BREEAM

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method, or BREEAM, was the world’s first widely used green building certification system. Developed in the 1990s in the UK by Building Research Establishment (BRE), today BREEAM is used in over 80 countries.1 BREAAM certification demonstrates a building project’s sustainability and its commitment to protecting…

Bronze

Bronze is a yellowish-brown metallic alloy that is primarily made of copper and a small percentage of tin and other metals. It is a metal that is ductile, durable, and has low friction with other metals. It can be easily melted down and molded into a variety of end uses…

California Prop 65 List

The California Prop 65 List is a public index of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals that are known to cause cancer and reproductive harm. This list was established by Proposition 65—a law officially known as the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986—to inform Californians about potential exposure…

CAN/ULC-S102 Flammability

Explore Materials and Sample The CAN/ULC-S102 Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials and Assemblies test is the Canadian standard for the relative surface burning characteristics of interior finish materials, products, and assemblies used in building construction. Results obtained from this test are used by code officials in the acceptance of…

CDPH/CHPS 01350

Explore Materials and Sample CDPH (California Department of Public Health) / CHPS (Certified in Healthcare Privacy and Security) Section 01350 is a United States standard that addresses the human health and environmental impacts of building materials used by the architecture and design community. Also known as the Standard Method for…

Certification

A certification provides third-party confirmation that a product, project, process, or system fulfills the requirements of a given standard. Certification programs vary in method or philosophy. They can be divided into multi-attribute and single-attribute programs. A single-attribute certification focuses on just one factor, like water use, energy use, or chemical…

Circular Economy

The Circular Economy is a framework that aims to reduce environmental impacts and generate economic growth by eliminating waste and reusing resources. This model is an alternative to the traditional linear economic system, which presumes the existence and accessibility of unlimited natural resources, and in which a product’s life cycle…

Compliance

In the building industry, compliance means acting in adherence to a set of regulations, standards, or codes. It indicates that a product, project, or process fulfills all official requirements. Designers, manufacturers, and other professionals may need to demonstrate compliance to internal management, regulators, the government, customers, or independent third parties.…

Copper

Explore Materials and Sample Copper is a shiny, reddish metal that is ductile, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity. This metal also has great anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. Copper is durable, however when it oxidizes—which occurs with exposure to the elements—the metal will patina and begin to…

Corrugated

Corrugation is the process by which structural ridges can be introduced to a material. The advantages of corrugated material over sheet material include dramatically increased tensile and load-bearing strength. Different edge profiles can be applied to achieve different aesthetic and performance attributes. Many different types of materials can be corrugated including…

Cradle to Cradle Basic Level Restricted Substances List (RSL)

The Cradle to Cradle (C2C) Basic Level Restricted Substances List (RSL) is a register of the chemicals that are banned from use in Cradle to Cradle Certified products above certain thresholds. These substances have been found to be harmful or toxic to the environment and human health.1 The RSL was…

Cradle to Cradle Material Health Certificate

The Cradle to Cradle (C2C) Material Health Certificate recognizes products that avoid the use of harmful chemicals or toxic materials, in accordance with Cradle to Cradle’s Certified Product Standard. The C2C product standard is administered by the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute (C2CPII) to incentivize environmentally and socially responsible…

Declaration

A declaration is a report that provides quantified, transparent information about a product’s environmental performance and material ingredients. It can be used by building industry professionals to facilitate comparison with similar products and to help manufacturers qualify for transparency credits in green building rating systems. Declarations can be published as…

Digital Print

Explore Materials and Sample Digital print refers to a process of directly printing onto a substrate from a digital resource. The process deposits ink droplets of various colors in a continuous jet or pulse that combine to create the desired colors for a given design. With advancements in ink compositions…

Distressed

Explore Materials and Sample Distressed refers to a material that has simulated marks of age and wear or has been purposely blemished so as to give the appearance of long, steady use. It can be applied to wood, metal, textile, glass, and stone through many methods such as hammering, denting,…

Embossed

Explore Materials and Sample Embossed refers to a fabrication process of applying a raised dimensional design to a material. The process requires both male and female dies to create an offset surface, as opposed to debossing, which involves pressing into the material and only requires one die. Embossing uses both…

Engraved

Explore Materials and Sample Engraving refers to a fabrication process that is used to carve a pattern or design into the surface of a hard material. It is typically used to create impressions on metal, stone, plastic, or glass and can be done by hand or with lasers depending on the…

Environmental Justice

Environmental Justice is the equitable distribution of environmental burdens and benefits, and of meaningful participation in environmental decision-making. This means that all people have the right to equal protection from environmental and health hazards, and the right to live, work, play, worship, or learn in safe, healthy communities.1 The US…

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human health and the environment. It was established in 1970 to ensure that all Americans have access to clean air, land, and water, and that related federal laws are administered and…

EPA Chemicals of Concern

EPA Chemicals of Concern is a list compiled by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing chemical substances found to be harmful or toxic to human health and the environment. This list was published in accordance with a 2016 amendment to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which requires…

Etched

Explore Materials and Sample Etched refers to a fabrication process that is used to carve a design or pattern onto the surface of a hard material. The process can be accomplished with acid, sand, or laser techniques and can be applied to many materials, including glass, metal, leather, stone, tile,…

Expanded Metal

Explore Materials and Sample Standard expanded metal is a plate or sheet of metal that has been cut and stretched to form a mesh-like material. The most common expanded profile is a diamond shape because of its durability and ease of production but other profiles can be also achieved through…

Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a volatile organic chemical (VOC) used as a preservative, disinfectant, and binding agent in the building industry.1 ­It has been designated as a carcinogen by the World Health Organization and California’s Proposition 65, and a Hazardous Air Pollutant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a key…

Global Warming Potential

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a unit of measurement developed to compare the atmospheric global warming impacts of gases. It tells us how long a gas remains in the atmosphere, and how much energy it absorbs over a given time period, relative to 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2).…

GREENGUARD

Explore Materials and Sample The GREENGUARD Certification Program—previously known as the GREENGUARD Indoor Air Quality Certification—recognizes products and processes that meet standards for safe levels of chemical and particle emissions in indoor spaces. GREENGUARD is a third-party assessment program created by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Environment to support manufacturers in producing…

GREENGUARD Gold

Explore Materials and Sample GREENGUARD is a third-party assessment program created by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Environment to support manufacturers in producing safe products designed for indoor spaces, in accordance with strict VOC emissions standards. GREENGUARD Gold is even more rigorous, permitting no more than 1/100 of currently published ACGIH Threshold…

Health Product Declaration (HPD)

Explore Materials and Sample A Health Product Declaration (HPD) is a standardized report that is used to disclose the contents of building materials, as well as their possible human health effects and hazards. HPDs are overseen by the Health Product Declaration Collaborative (HPDC), a non-profit organization with members from across…

Heavy Metals

Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements with high densities relative to water, which are toxic at low concentrations.1 They are part of an ill-defined subset of elements with metallic properties, usually categorized as metals or metalloids.2 In trace amounts, many of these elements are necessary to sustain life, but when…

Indoor Air Quality

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the quality of air in and around buildings, as it affects human health and safety. Pollutants released into indoor air can cause adverse short- and long-term health effects. These effects have a disproportionate impact on at-risk populations like children, the elderly, asthmatics, low-income, minorities,…

International Living Future Institute

The International Living Future Institute (ILFI), established in 2009 by members of the Cascadia Green Building Council, is a non-profit advocating for a socially just, culturally rich, and ecologically restorative society. As the umbrella organization tasked with managing the Living Building Challenge, the Living Product Challenge, the Living Community Challenge,…

Laser Cut

Explore Materials and Sample Laser cut refers to a fabrication process that is used for cutting or engraving materials into specified patterns, designs, or shapes. This method is commonly used on metal, textiles, plastic, and wood but can work on many materials including glass, paper, leather, ceramics, stone, and concrete. The…

Lead

Lead is a naturally occurring metal found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. It is considered a heavy metal because of its high density and toxicity at low concentrations. Although it is toxic to humans and animals, it is used in industrial activities such as burning fossil fuels, mining,…

LEED

Explore Materials and Sample Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a third-party certification system and global standard for green buildings and communities. Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), LEED is the world’s most widely used green building rating system. It provides the tools for building industry…

Life Cycle Assessment

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a standardized set of procedures used to quantify the inputs, outputs, and potential environmental impacts of products or systems across their entire life cycle. LCAs promote the redesign and responsible design of products and processes to reduce harm to the environment.1 The life cycle is…

Low-Emitting

Explore Materials and Sample Low-emitting or low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reduced concentrations of chemical contaminants in manufactured goods that, at significant levels, can be harmful to human health and the environment. VOC emissions can be released from household products like paints, solvents, carpets, wood composites, and cleaning products,…

Perforated

Explore Materials and Sample Perforated refers to materials that have been pierced with holes, typically with uniform profiles and spacing. Perforations can be applied to a variety of materials including metal, plastic, paper, leather, textiles, and wallcoverings. Depending on the type of material, perforating can add a host of performance…

Perkins and Will Precautionary List

The Perkins & Will Precautionary List is a compilation of hazardous chemicals that are used in the building, design, and construction industry. The list was developed by Perkins & Will, an architecture and planning firm whose aim is to provide industry professionals with a tool to analyze the health and…

Post-Consumer Recycled

Explore Materials and Sample Post-consumer recycled content is material waste generated after the consumer-use phase of an item’s life cycle that is used to manufacture new products. To claim post-consumer content, manufacturers must disclose the percentage of recycled materials used, according to the item’s total weight. Use of either kind…

Post-Industrial Recycled

Explore Materials and Sample Post-industrial recycled content, also known as pre-consumer recycled content, is material waste generated during mass production that is later used to manufacture new products. Unlike post-consumer recycled content, post-industrial material has been recycled before entering into contact with consumers and being sent to a landfill. In…

Product Life Cycle

A product life cycle is an assessment of resource consumption, performance, and environmental impacts at each phase of an industrial product’s life. It consists of the extraction of raw materials, the processing of those materials, manufacturing, shipping, use, maintenance, and finally disposal or recycling. Life cycle assessment is based on…

REACH Substances of Very High Concern

REACH Substances of Very High Concern (SVHCs) are chemicals that pose a serious threat to human health and the environment, as evaluated by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA). They are regulated through the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), a European Union law instated in 2007. The SVHC…

Recycled Content

Explore Materials and Sample Recycled content, as opposed to virgin stock, is material that has been diverted from a landfill and subsequently used in the manufacturing of new product. Defined by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to prevent false marketing claims, recycled content can be supplied from industrial or consumer…

Red List

The Red List is an index of the most harmful and polluting materials used in the building industry. It was created by the International Living Future Institute (ILFI) to identify and eliminate pollutants, substances that are harmful to construction and factory workers, and chemicals that bio-accumulate up the food chain…

Scallop

Scallop refers to a geometric pattern of repeating arcs or curves. It is inspired by the shape of a scallop shell. Photography Courtesy of Ann Sacks…

SCS Global Services

SCS Global Services is a third-party certification body that also develops its own standards. It develops environmental, sustainability, food safety, and quality performance standards, as well as auditing and certification programs. It works internationally, initiating partnerships with companies, government agencies, NGOs, and other stakeholders to achieve sustainable development goals and…

Sealant

A sealant can be applied for purposes of protecting a substrate material from air, gas, dust, liquids, or abrasion. It can be designed to provide thermal and acoustical insulation or serve as a fire barrier. Sealants may have smoothing or gap filling properties, and may be weak or strong, flexible…

Six Classes

Six Classes is a framework developed by the Green Science Policy Institute to provide information about many  of the harmful chemicals used in building materials and consumer products, in order to minimize their use. Rather than creating a list of chemicals of concern, Six Classes groups chemicals into six categories.…

Social Equity

Social Equity, at its simplest, can be understood as impartiality, fairness, and justice for all people.1 This means taking into account systemic inequalities to ensure that that everyone has access to the same opportunities and outcomes. Equity acknowledges that inequalities exist and works to eliminate them. It means that regardless…

Stainless Steel

Explore Materials and Sample Stainless steel is just regular steel that is composed of iron and carbon, but with chromium and other alloys added to enhance performance. With chromium added to the steel there is a protective surface that keeps air and water from corroding the steel as it is…

Steel

Explore Materials and Sample Steel is a metal that is an alloy of iron and carbon which contains small amounts of silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, and oxygen. This metal is known to rust—return to its original state of iron oxide—as it is exposed to elements like water and oxygen, but this…

Substrate

A substrate refers to a base surface or underlying layer upon which another material is adhered, coated, laminated, deposited, printed, or otherwise brought into contact with.…

Supply Chain

A supply chain is a coordinated system of processes, information, resources, physical locations, and service providers that are responsible for a product’s manufacturing, storage, distribution, and retail.1 All activities between the extraction of raw materials and the product’s acquisition by an end customer make up part of the supply chain.…

Texture

Explore Materials and Sample Texture describes the dimensionality of a material surface independently from a pattern or motif. Textures can be flat or deep, even or uneven, and soft or rough. Textures are created for visual impact, but their tactile quality and physical properties are experienced through touch. Photography Courtesy…

Third Party

A third party is an objective, independent person or organization. Product testing, evaluation, certification, and reporting is often performed by a third party in order to ensure reliability. In order to be independent, third parties must have no conflicts of interest, financial, personal, or otherwise, with involved parties such as…

Three Dimensional

A three-dimensional material has physical attributes that exist in the X, Y, and Z plains. While specific categories of materials will define three-dimensionality differently, if there has been an additive, reductive, or transformative process done to the material, it may qualify as having three-dimensional characteristics.…

Toxicity

Toxicity refers to the potential of a substance to cause harm to the living body. Toxic substances, or toxicants, can be naturally occurring (such as lead), synthetic (like phthalates), or produced by a living organism (like mold). Those produced by a living organism fall into a subclassification of toxicants called…

UL (formerly Underwriters Laboratories)

UL (formerly Underwriters Laboratories), founded in 1894, is an independent safety science company and standards developer that promotes the production and use of products that are physically and environmentally safe. It seeks to advance the living and working conditions for people, through the application of science, hazard-based safety engineering, and…

UL 723 Flammability

Explore Materials and Sample The UL 723 Surface Burning Characteristic of Building Materials test is a standard of Underwriters Laboratories (UL) that measures the burning properties, or fire resistance, of building materials that may be exposed to flames. Results obtained from this test are used by code officials in the…

US Green Building Council

The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is a nonprofit organization committed to transforming the nation’s construction industry by promoting the values of the green building rating system Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). Its mission is to facilitate healthier, more socially and environmentally responsible buildings and communities that improve…

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemical contaminants that, at significant levels, can be harmful to human health and the environment. VOCs are volatile, meaning that they evaporate readily, and organic, which means that they contain carbon atoms. There are several exceptions that do not fall under VOC categorization, including carbon…

Wastewater

Wastewater refers to any water that has been used by humans. It includes water that has been contaminated by domestic, industrial, agricultural, and commercial use, and from stormwater runoff and infiltration.1 After use, water must be treated to reduce pollutants before being released into the environment. Wastewater is collected in…

Waterjet

Waterjet refers to an industrial tool that utilizes a high-pressure stream of water, or mixture of water and an abrasive substance, to efficiently cut a variety of materials. A waterjet machine typically consists of a controller that uses software to operate the system, a high-intensity pump, and a table with…

WELL

Explore Materials and Sample The WELL Building Standard is a global rating system that uses a point-based framework of best-practice policies to assess the impact of the built environment on human health. WELL was founded by the International WELL Building Institute (IWBI), a public benefit corporation with a mission to…

Zinc

Zinc is a blue-gray metal that is classified as a sulfide mineral. Over time, as it oxidizes and is exposed to stains, this metal will patina and create its own unique colors and design. Zinc is ductile, malleable, a good conductor of heat and electricity, and has anti-bacterial properties. This…