Abstract refers to artworks and designs that do not intend to represent physical realities. Rather, abstraction relies on form, composition, line, color, texture, and gesture to create imagery that either simplifies or repudiates visual reality. Abstraction as an idea was born in the 19th century as artists sought to develop an artform reflecting the immense changes in technology, science and philosophy. Since its inception, it has had diverse sources and many theoretical directions, among them fauvism, cubism, expressionism and abstract expressionism.

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