A declaration is a report that provides quantified, transparent information about a product’s environmental performance and material ingredients. It can be used by building industry professionals to facilitate comparison with similar products and to help manufacturers qualify for transparency credits in green building rating systems. Declarations can be published as labels on a product, which might display statements, symbols, or graphics. They can also appear in product literature, technical bulletins, or advertising.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) establishes parameters for Type III environmental declarations, such as environmental product declarations (EPDs) and health product declarations (HPDs). These declarations are based on information about a product’s independently verified life cycle assessment (LCA) data, life cycle inventory analysis (LCI), and other relevant information about its impact on the environment and health, according to ISO 14040 standards. Type III environmental declarations are administered by accredited program operators, which might be a company, an industrial sector or trade association, public agencies, or independent scientific organizations.1 Other declarations operate according to their own standards and provide different kinds of information. For example, the Declare Label use standards developed and administered by the environmental NGO International Future Living Institute (ILFI), and is based on disclosure of product ingredients, sourcing, and end of life options.2