A woven textile is created by interlacing warp and weft (fill) yarns on a loom. Warp yarns run vertically in a loom and weft yarns run horizontally. Warp yarns are thin with a high twist, making them more durable than weft yarns. They usually have a higher density per inch, with good abrasion, tension, and flexibility. Weft yarns do not necessarily have to be strong, which allows for a variety of colors and sizes to be used. Woven textiles are characterized by a durable construction that is breathable, and permeable in nature.
There are three main woven textile methods: plain, twill, and satin. Plain weave occurs when the warp and weft yarns alternate under and over one another. Variations of plain weave include basket weaves and rib weaves. Twill weave fabrics always have a definite line in the structure, but it may appear in different forms such as straight diagonal, broken twill, herringbone, diamonds, or zigzags. If the number of warp and weft yarns are even, then the woven fabric is reversible. If the number of warp and weft yarns are uneven, then the woven fabric is not reversible. Satin weave fabrics have long floats that are spaced apart in a regular order to create a smooth, dense surface that is warp dominated on one side and weft dominant on the opposite side.
Another weaving method is jacquard. This type of weaving is very intricate and unique with either a very large repeat or a tapestry effect. They are woven on a Jacquard loom that individually manipulates each warp yarn to create the complex pattern. Jacquard weaves can also be manipulated to create texture in the final product. Two variations of jacquard that use a raised texture are brocade and matelassé.